- General characteristics
- Stage 1 - choosing the form and type
- Frame shape
- Design feature
- Stage 2 - selection of location
- How to reduce the size of the opening for the stairs
- Step №3 - calculation of parameters
- The height of the stairs
- Length of stairs (length of the flight)
- Width of stairs in a private house
- Width of the main staircase
- Width of the main staircase with winders
- Width of the spiral staircase
- The angle of inclination of the staircase (steepness)
- Number of steps of the ladder
- Step height (distance between steps of the ladder)
- Step step (width of the step)
- Stair step length
- Stage 4 - accurate calculation of the dimensions of the stairs
- Stage 5 - detailed drawing and sketch
- Design errors and expert advice (1 video)
- Interesting models of stairs (48 photos)
An urgent issue in the construction of a private house on two floors is the design and installation of stairs. The most popular are options for the marching type. They have many advantages, including ergonomics and safety. In most cases, you can find marching stairs with a 180-degree turn. These are U-shaped constructions, which are highly reliable and durable.
There are many types of stairs according to their design, but not all of them are suitable in certain conditions. In the case when it is necessary to save space as much as possible, choose a staircase with a turn of 180, especially the option in which the site is replaced with run-in steps. In this case, the load on the ladder is distributed over the two walls. Using such a model of a flight staircase, you can not only save free space, but also increase the degree of safety during travel.
To achieve the extended angle, the craftsmen use the following architectural features:
- installation of a double or triple march with a platform rectangular;
- installation of two staircases using run-in steps;
- a semi-screw type construction device;
- a combination of all or more of the options listed above.
It is not difficult to assemble the ladder yourself, since there is a fairly large selection on the market ready-made elements for assembly. A wooden staircase with a 180 degree turn can be designed and assembled by choosing the required modules.
Stage 1 - the choice of shape and type
A feature of the installation of a swing staircase in a private house is the fact that it is not required to adhere to all norms and GOSTs unquestioningly. But, the main points must be preserved, otherwise, neglecting them may lead to a decrease in the degree of safety. Before choosing the model of stairs you need, you need to decide on the shape of the frame, as well as study the features of a particular design.
The ladder can be made of either wood or metal. In any case, its frame has three options for the device:
- Kosoura.The use of one or two load-bearing beams is contemplated. Steps are mounted on them.
- Bowstrings.The structure of the frame is built on the presence of two beams supporting the steps on the sides.
- Bolza.On one side, the steps are fixed to the wall, on the other to the floor and ceiling with metal rods.
Ladders are divided into the following types according to their design features:
- Marching type.The design includes separate flights. According to their number, the stairs are subdivided into one-, two- and more marching ones. In their form, there are straight, 180-degree staircases with a platform or with winding steps. The latter are more often found with the provision of rotation by 90, 180, 360.
- Screw type.Such stairs have a turn around their axis. They are used if the house does not have enough free space for a marching structure. But, there are difficulties in their calculation and installation.
- Folding type.This version of the stairs is portable. They are not suitable for permanent installations.
In the video:a wooden staircase with run-in steps (the experience of a townswoman).
Step # 2 - selection of the location
When choosing the location of the ladder, you must rely on the following points:
- area of the room;
- location of the premises in the generalized plan of the house;
- The shape of the staircase itself.
If there is not enough free space in the house, then a large monolithic staircase will not be appropriate. Not only will it take up a lot of space, you still need to beat the space around it. For a small-sized room, the option against the wall, an entry staircase with a 180-degree turn, or a spiral staircase located in the corner of the room is suitable.
How to reduce the size of the staircase opening
The following parameters are optimal for comfortable use of the ladder:
- step height no more than 170 mm;
- step width - 300 mm;
- The draft angle is 25 to 40 degrees.
But such data requires enough space to install the stairs, as well as a wide opening to the second floor. It is possible to reduce the size of the opening by proportionally reducing the dimensions of the height and width of the step.
Step # 3 - calculation of parameters
When constructing a staircase with 180 degree rotary steps, you need to know which parameters are taken into account and how to calculate them correctly. According to the recommendations of professionals, it is enough to take into account several main factors so that the structure has a presentable appearance, is convenient and safe to use.
Stair height is a value that expresses the distance from the floor level to the first floor slab.Usually the upper end of the structure rests against the ceiling. An opening is made directly above the structure for ease of movement. The next nuance that must be taken into account for the practicality of the design is the distance from the step to the ceiling. For this, the height of the tallest person in the family is taken into account and 10 cm is added.
According to regulatory documents, the standard is 2 m. This parameter must be observed throughout the entire staircase.
Stair length (flight length)
type, its length is equal to the length of a single-flight span or the amount of flights into which it is divided. In the latter case, it is necessary to add the length of the platform, which is mounted between them.
If we are talking about a screw structure, then you need to calculate the average length of the march. Measurements must be determined at a distance of 50 cm from the edge of the span. Similar calculations are performed for a staircase with run-in steps.
The width of a staircase in a private house
The width of a staircase is a parameter that expresses the distance between two handrails of a structure or from a wall to a handrail. According to the standards, it can be:
- 900-1000 mm;
- 1250 mm;
- 1500 mm.
Many regulatory documents presuppose certain standards of some values that must be taken into account when drafting a staircase.
Width of the main staircase
Certain parameters of the width of the main staircase determine its functionality:
- 1500 mm - design providing a high level of comfort;
- 1000-1200 mm - a model with this width guarantees comfortable use;
- 800-1000 mm is the recommended width for a structure that is located directly against the wall;
- parameters less than 800 mm are suitable for the device of auxiliary structures.
The width of the main staircase with winders
There is little choice for a structure equipped with winders. Its minimum width should be 1100 mm.
Width of the spiral staircase
The spiral staircase can be equipped with the following width parameters: 1400 mm - for full comfortable use, 1100 mm - minimum parameters. The reason for this is the shape of the winders - they taper towards the center, therefore, the usable area decreases. This is compensated by the width of the device.
The angle of inclination of the stairs (steepness)
An important parameter for the convenient use of the stairs is the angle of its inclination. It is different for each species. Although a large angle of inclination can significantly save space in the house, the staircase becomes less comfortable.
Here are some standards that are usually used for the construction of stairs in relation to their steepness:
- fire and household types installed directly on the walls - from 75 to 90;
- ladders of the attached type - from 45 to 75;
- residential structures - from 20 to 75;
- Ramp values are 0 to 24.
The parameters from 24 to 37 are considered the optimal indicator of the angle of inclination for comfortable use of a staircase in residential buildings. If the staircase has a steepness of more than 45, then the descent must be done only with the back forward.
Number of stairs
The next question to be answered when designing is the number of stairs. In this regard, there are no norms. It all depends on the length of the stairs.Experts recommend making the same number of steps in each march. But, in practice, this is not always the case.
Step height (distance between steps of the stairs)
step in 150 mm.Often, when constructing a structure, there is a problem of excess height. It can be easily eliminated by adjusting this parameter between the first and second step or the last and the penultimate one.
Ladder step (step width)
Convenient movement along the ladder structure ensures that a person's foot is positioned on the steps. This can only be ensured by the element width of at least 230 mm.In reality, in everyday life you can find stairs with a step and 100 mm, but convenience cannot be achieved in this case. This often results in injuries. The steps with a width of over 650 mm also bring inconvenience to use, since they constantly knock and stumble through them.
The width of the step is increased by arranging some overhang of it over the support. In this case, there are rules. That is, the step should not overhang by more than 50 mm.
Ladder rung length
The rung length parameter is determined by the structure wooden stairs. In the event that it consists of a double bowstring, the length of the step is equal to the distance between them (the minimum value is 80 cm). The construction on the stringer assumes the length of the elements at the request of the customers.
Step №4 - the exact calculation of the dimensions of the stairs
All elements in the staircase are interconnected. Elementary knowledge of geometry will help to calculate them. The main parameters to start with are the length and width of the structure. Consider an example of calculation for a room that is not limited by the space for installing a two-flight staircase.
Start by calculating the length of the ladder. You can define it in the following way:
- The thickness of the ceiling is added to the height of the room.For this example, the room height is 3000 mm and the floor is 200 mm. The result is 3200 mm. Then the result is divided by 160 mm, that is, by the height of the steps, and get 20. This means that the number of steps in this case is 20.
- Next, you need to determine the width steps.Experts recommend arranging them with a width of 300 mm. If we take into account the level of the step, then to determine the length of the ladder, it is necessary to multiply the number of steps by 250 mm. As a result, a structure with a length of 5000 mm is obtained.
- At the next stage, they begin to calculate the width of a two-flight wooden staircase.It is performed in the following way: the width of the opening is subtracted from the height of the room, which according to the norms is 1900 mm. As a result, we get a result of 1100 mm. Then it is necessary to divide it by the step height parameter - 160 mm, as a result of which the number of steps is obtained over which the overlap is placed. In this case, approximately 7 steps are obtained.
- The remaining 13 steps are placed in the non-overlapping area.Otherwise, the movement on them will not be comfortable. So, the width of the step in this case is 300 mm, the width of the passage is calculated according to formula 13, multiplied by 300 mm and 3900 mm is obtained.
Online calculators will be great helpers in more serious calculations, such as for stairs with 180 degree turn of steps, which can be found on the internet.
Stage 5 - detailed drawing and sketch
Before you start calculating the 180 degree swing staircase, you need to create a sketch of the structure. For a flight staircase, the dimensions must be indicated on the sketch. Not only the design parameters, but also the room itself are applied to the paper. Be sure to mark the location of windows, doors and other things. Some examples of drawings can be seen in the photos below.
Any consumer wants to have a comfortable and beautiful staircase. But in addition to these properties, the structure must have reliability and high strength. Only in this case, the inhabitants will be able to feel the convenience of using it. Do not forget about the handrails, which are not only a decorative element, but also an excellent protection against falls when moving up the stairs.