- Calculation of ladders
- Calculation of the ladder "goose step"
- Calculation of the ladder on the bowstring
- Calculation of steps
- How to determine the angle of inclination?
- Parameters of handrails and railings
- Detailed guide to the calculation of stairs (2 videos)
- Various models of staircase systems (52 photos)
Today, the construction of a private residential building or a country house rarely does without two or more floors, and this layout option involves the indispensable construction of stairs for transitions from one level to another. But before getting down to business, it is necessary to carry out the correct calculation of the stairs to the second floor. In this case, you cannot do without initial professional knowledge, the ability to handle measuring tools and skills in drawing, multiplication and addition.
Calculation of staircase structures
The main secret in the difficult process of arranging the transition from floor to floor is not so much to build as to know how to calculate the staircase. To make the correct calculation, it is not enough to be guided by the idea of how the structure will approximately look like, and where the owner of the building would like to see it.
Here's what you need to do in advance:
- determine the location of the flight of stairs and prepare the opening in the ceiling at the construction stage;
- decide whether the staircase will be wooden or a different material will be preferred;
- decide whether the structure will consist of one flight or the height of the ceiling and the space of the room allow making it a two-flight;
- estimate the approximate height of the step (from considerations of how convenient it will be for all household members to climb);
- decide how many steps there should be to the second and third floors;
- make careful measurements and draw up a drawing of the future structure, taking into account the characteristics of the premises and the type of stairs;
- calculate the steps of the stairs, taking into account its variety, ceiling height, the number of marches.
In order to correctly calculate the future structure and make it durable and safe, it is necessary to correctly make the measurements indicated in the figure as the main ones. Below in the diagram you can see the parameters required to make a drawing of any staircase.
The calculation of a staircase involves not only a correctly defined number of steps, which depends on the height of these elements, taking into account the decorative coating (if it is present and reaches several centimeters). It is important to determine the depth of the tread of each step.
The correct approach to measurements, reliable data and a well-defined scheme will allow:
- to design a staircase of any kind and of significant complexity;
- to master the standard and individual version, designed for a specific room;
- to ensure the reliability of the interfloor structure;
- to give it a beautiful and aesthetic appearance, to make it an organic detail in the house.
Modern trends in the decoration of premises use different types of wood, vary the width of staircases, making them wider at the bottom and narrowed at the top, use construction of a two-flight or even three-flight staircase.
There are many options for stairs - the choice of a particular model depends on the allocated installation site, free space and the preferences of the home owners.
Marching is the most common straight design, which can consist of one or more spans.It is made of various materials, but most often it is made of wood. It is quite simple to design and build, but it requires several indispensable components.
For the manufacture of any mid-flight staircase, you need:
- bearing beams (these can be both stringers and bowstrings);
- support pillars (their number may vary, depending on marches and site equipment);
- simple or end-to-end steps (the latter are often used in turning staircases);
- additional lumber if there is an intermarch site in the drawing;
- balusters and handrails if the structure will have railings.
The calculation of a marching staircase for residential premises is performed taking into account certain requirements:
- Optimal staircase width - not less than 0.8-1 m.
- Distance from the flight of stairs to the ceiling - not less than 2 m.
- The angle of inclination of the ladder should be within 35-45 degrees.
- The maximum number of steps in one flight - 19 pcs.
- The height of each step is 16-19 cm, the width of the tread is 22-33 cm.
You can calculate the exact parameters of the future staircase, knowing the dimensions of the room: the distance from the floor to the ceiling, including the thickness of the floor slab, the width of the opening, the area of the room. You can use a simple calculator, but there is also an online calculator specially designed for this purpose on the Internet.
Designing a single-flight staircase is quite simple, if you decide on the type of load-bearing beams.The structure can be built on bowstrings, stringers or bolts (metal fasteners used on the outside of a wooden staircase).
The formula A * B will help to correctly calculate the length of the supporting beams (and hence the length of the staircase), where B is equal to the assumed width of the steps, A is their total number...
How to calculate the number of steps in a future staircase and determine the height of the steps (the width of the steps) is clearly demonstrated in the video below.
In the video:how to calculate the stairs (the number of steps, the length of the stringer).
Projects of residential buildings can be variable and provide for the construction of a two-flight staircase with a platform or run-in steps.The design of the L-shaped (corner) staircase provides for the fastening of the runners and an indispensable corner post that is used for support.
In the U-shaped system, a platform is often made as an intermediate link between the first and second marches - it is attached to the main wall.The site can be increased or made smaller, the main thing is that the distance between the flights is a step (60-80 cm).
In the video:how to make measurements for calculating a U-shaped staircase.
This option is calculated for large cottages and can be part of the design of the premises.A timber structure is environmentally friendly and decorative, but may require additional fastening means to make the structure more robust.
Technical parameters depend on the individual characteristics of the project, but the calculation formula, according to accurate measurements, even for a professional engineer requires a section and a structure plan, exact figures for the slope of the flights, the height and width of the steps. The diagram below shows a drawing of a possible variant of a three-flight staircase.
A special feature of the screw design is the location of steps around the support leg. Its diameter is the main calculated value.First, the overall diameter of the structure is determined and a top view is made. The drawing depicts 2 circles (stairs and the trajectory of movement along it). Then you need to calculate the number of steps, their number must be an integer, and if it turns out to be fractional, it must be increased.
To determine the height of the steps, the diameter of the circle is divided by the number obtained from the first count.
houses often install an angular staircase - a structure with a 90-degree turn.The main element of the U-turn can be both the run-in steps and the landing.
When calculating, you should rely on the following recommendations:
- If there is a platform between flights, its length should be more than 140 cm, and the width should correspond to the span width.
- If a staircase with winder steps is planned, then their width from the outer edge should be at least 40 cm, in the middle - at least 20 cm, and the width of the narrowest part - 14 cm.
- a turn of the stairs requires a platform in the form of a square or three or four run-in steps.
In the video:an example of calculating a staircase with winders.
Calculation of the stairs "goose step"
This is a kind of compact staircase, in which the steps are symmetrically located relative to the line of travel.This design is installed when it is necessary to save space in the house. As a rule, the angle of inclination of the “goose step” stairs is 45-65 degrees.
A distinctive characteristic of this type of construction is the treads, the wide part of which occupies only half the length of the steps.
When calculating the “goose step” ladder, the recommended step parameters must be taken into account:
- Tread width in place where the foot will rest should be about 30 cm.
- The width of the narrow part is equal to half the width of the wide one (sometimes it is made less).
- Recommended step height (distance from tread to tread) - 15 cm.
Calculation of the ladder on the bowstring
The calculation of a ladder on a bowstring is made taking into account some parameters, but does not differ from the main process:
- the distance from the floor to the ceiling is determined;
- according to the formula, the height of the steps is calculated;
- the width of the steps is calculated;
- based on the width of the opening in the interfloor overlap, the length of the bowstring is calculated;
- the width of the bowstring must not be less than 50 cm.
Calculation of steps
The number of steps can be calculated based on the GOST normative documents, which indicate the recommended angle of inclination, the width of the step and the ability to withstand the weight of a person, and, preferably, more than one.
The height of the steps is calculated based on the convenience of family members and the characteristics of the existing project, and the number of steps will help to determine the correctly applied formula.You can calculate the size of the steps using the results of your own measurements of the steps for counting: a - height and b - width (2a + b = 64).
Knowing the estimated height of the stairs from the floor, it is divided by the estimated similar parameter of the step.
How to determine the angle of inclination?
The angle of inclination of the stairs is an equally important indicator, on which the convenience of movement, lifting / lowering of a person and the ability to transport large pieces of furniture depends. To determine the angle, the height and width of the steps, the distance from floor to ceiling are taken into account.
Parameters of handrails and railings
In a wooden staircase, the parameters of handrails and railings determine the step spacing and an individual design of the structure. They can be increased for safety in the same way as the riser width.The most important parameters are considered to be the height of the baluster, the length and width of the railing.
According to regulatory documents, the railing of any staircase must have the following parameters:
- height (including the railing) 900-1000 mm;
- the length of the railing is equivalent to the length of a flight of stairs;
- the distance between the balusters is not more than 150 mm.